The Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis
- Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome,
Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS) represents a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily studied in elderly dogs. CDS manifests various clinical signs within the behavioural realm, ranging from alterations in social interaction to disorientation and anxiety. This paper provides an in-depth exploration of CDS, encompassing its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. The diagnosis and management of CDS in ageing dogs present a significant challenge due to the wide array of nonspecific clinical symptoms and pathological signs associated with the condition. Recognising CDS as a neurobehavioral disease, where neurological signs and behavioural symptoms are intricately linked, is imperative, and early detection of cognitive impairment is crucial for successful treatment. Various screening questionnaires could play a pivotal role in objectively assessing cognitive decline, aiding in the identification and management of CDS. Further studies should investigate deeper the results of such tools, comparing the methods and reliability in both research and clinical environment.